In the photo, she poses with her arms around her dad while they both smile for the camera in sunglasses and dark jackets.
"Happy [Father's] Day to this guy!" Cuoco wrote. "Attended all my tennis tournaments, became a horse show dad, has missed just a taping of [The Big Bang Theory], and laughs whenever I call and say 'I brought another animal home'. He is one of a kind!"
Many of Cuoco's 3.6 million Instagram followers left comments on the sweet photo.
"I saw him at a BBT taping. So cool that he comes to all of them!" one fan wrote.
"Only missed one taping? That's awesome! Lucky to have a great father!" someone else wrote.
"He raised a great woman!" another said.
"Dads like him are what makes successful adults like you," someone else said.
Cuoco's Instagram feed is normally sprinkled with photos of her horses and dogs, friends or her fiancé Karl Cook, so fans reveled at the chance to see her with her father.
She may have been celebrating her dad on Father's Day, but the 32-year-old actress celebrated the end of her single life the next weekend at a pink-soaked bachelorette party. She hung out with friends and family Saturday night as she danced away the night to her favorite songs from Beyoncé, Madonna and Britney Spears. Thanks to a plethora of social media posts from attendees like Fashion Police star Brad Goreski, sister Briana Cuoco and makeup artist Jamie Greenberg, fans were privy to an inside look at the festivities.
Everyone who attended the party wore pink — except for the bride-to-be, who wore a white mini dress. In one clip posted by Greenberg, Cuoco yells, "I'm getting married in white!" which could possibly be a reference to her wearing a pink gown during her first marriage ceremony to ex-husband Ryan Sweeting in 2013.
After the party, Cuoco shared a photo of pink balloons on the ceiling of the venue and thanked her friends for coming out.
"The most magical night ever," she wrote. "Thank you to my amazing friends and family for celebrating my future as Mrs. Cook! I have never felt more loved."
Cuoco and her soon-to-be husband, equestrian Karl Cook, got engaged in November on Cuoco's birthday. They started dating in March 2016, with Cuoco previously married to Sweeting from December 2013 to September 2015.